This is a list of frequently asked questions (FAQ) for the InCommon Certificate Service.


h2. General Questions

h3. What is the InCommon Certificate Service?

The InCommon Certificate Service, created by and for the higher education community, provides unlimited server and client certificates for one low membership fee. This includes unlimited Domain Validation SSL certificates, Extended Validation (EV) SSL certificates, client (or personal) certificates, and code-signing certificates.

h3. Why is this program attractive to my institution?

The higher education community developed this service to reduce the cost of certificates to campuses. Because InCommon is a non-profit, community-driven organization, the program provides value and benefits to the subscribers (rather than providing profit for the certificate provider). The program offers unlimited certificates for a single annual fee, which is expected to reduce the cost of certificates for many institutions.

h3. What is Comodo's role in this program?

Comodo is the certification authority and InCommon has contracted with Comodo for deep discounts that are made available to colleges and universities. As a commercial certification authority, Comodo has extensive knowledge of the marketplace and attractive features. Comodo has been operating a similar service with TERENA, the Trans-European Research and Education Networking Association. TERENA's positive association with Comodo, and its significant software development using the Comodo APIs, made this partnership attractive to InCommon and Internet2.

h3. Who can subscribe to the InCommon Certificate Service?

Any higher education institution with its primary location in the United States, who qualifies for a domain in the .edu name space, may subscribe, as well as not-for-profit regional research and education networking organizations in the United States. Subscribers must be InCommon participants or must join InCommon to be eligible for the Certificate Service.

h3. Are non-profit regional R&E networking organizations eligible?

Not-for-profit regional research and education networking organizations with primary offices in the United States that are not housed within an otherwise eligible educational institution may join this program by paying an annual fee of $2,000. No further discounts are applicable to this fee. In all cases, participation in this program is solely to allow the organization to acquire certificates for staff within that organization and for servers and services operated directly by the organization.  Participation explicitly excludes the ability for the organization to issue certificates to members of the organization or to resell the service to members of the organization.  This fee also applies to any non-Carnegie classified organizations who qualify for participation (i.e., organizations in the United States who currently have a .edu domain).  All participating organizations must still join InCommon as is required for all participants in this program.

h3. Can we take advantage of the Certificate Service without participating in federated identity services?

Yes. You must [join InCommon|] but you don't need to use the federated identity services.

h3. Is Shibboleth a requirement for using the Certificate Service?

No, but we are investigating using federated identity management to simplify access to the InCommon Certificate Manager (CM).

h3. Why is InCommon membership required for participation?

This program is an extension of the trust services already being provided and managed by InCommon, and will require InCommon resources, including staff time and effort. In particular, implementation of this program will take advantage of the Registration Authority (RA) already managed by InCommon for establishing a trust services infrastructure with participants.

h3. What does the InCommon Certificate Service cost?

Please see the [official fee schedule|]. Internet2 members receive a 25 percent discount.

h3. Why are Internet2 members being given a 25 percent discount?

InCommon is wholly owned by Internet2, and Internet2 is providing the initial capital required to launch the program.

h3. How do I sign up for this program?

There is a _Certificate Service Subscriber Agreement_ stored in our [document repository|]. The Subscriber Agreement is an addendum to the [InCommon Participation Agreement|]. InCommon participation is required to take advantage of the certificate service.

h3. What is the required term of participation?

Initially, institutions are required to commit to participation for an initial term of three (3) years, with the certificate service fee billed annually.

h2. Operational Questions

h3. How does an institution actually acquire certificates?

InCommon operates the Registration Authority, leveraging its current processes for verifying organizations and identity proofing officials authorized to act on behalf of an institution for certificate issuance. These individuals may be the same or different than the current InCommon administrators. It is expected that at each institution a small number of people (typically two or three) will be authorized to manage the overall institutional certificate program.

Once an institution authorizes specific individuals, they will use the InCommon Certificate Manager (or the API) for requesting individual certificates. InCommon is, by design, not in the path of certificate issuance or revocation (or even in the path of authorizing second-level personnel), only the vetting of the top-level certificate program administrators and the domains they are authorized to administer.

h3. What types of interfaces are provided?

Comodo hosts both a GUI (called the InCommon Certificate Manager, or CM) and an API to their service for certificate issuance, management of second-level personnel and institutional policies for certificate structure, as well as support in matters such as certificate revocation.

h3. What is the InCommon Certificate Manager (CM)?

The CM is the web-based interface used to request and manage your certificates.

h3. How many different certificate types are supported?

The following [certificate types|InCommon Cert Types] are available to participants:

# Server Certificates
## Domain Validation SSL/TLS Certificates
##* includes wild-card certificates
## [Extended Validation (EV) SSL/TLS Certificates|]
##* issued directly by Comodo and subject to Comodo's domain vetting processes, terms and conditions, and CPS, but at no extra charge beyond the base InCommon certificate service fee
# Client Certificates
## Standard Assurance Client Certificates
##* three key usage types: signing-only, encryption-only, and dual-use
##* a centralized key escrow service is available at no extra charge
## Code-signing Certificates
##* not yet available

h3. Can I have my own private label CA?

Yes, private label CAs are available under our agreement with Comodo. Intermediate CAs with campus-specific profiles and practice statements are available to members who desire this functionality for an additional cost.

h3. Will the certificates issued be recognized by other federations?

This functionality is anticipated for a later release of the program based upon demand from the InCommon community. Our agreement with Comodo allows for cross-signing of other CAs at an additional cost.

h2. Questions about Server Certificates

h3. What if my campus operates domains other than their primary institutional .edu domain?

Any domains administered by the institution (e.g., a professional society with a .org domain or even a .com domain) can qualify, as long as the institution can prove that it is the administrative manager for that domain. The key requirement is that the institution be the administrator of record for these domains and organizations.

h3. What are wild-card certificates?

The program allows institutions to issue so-called wild-card certificates. A primary advantage of wild-card certificates has been to allow a reduction of the number of certificates purchased. Given that in this program there is no longer a price penalty for issuance of additional SSL certs, institutions may wish to reconsider the use of wild-card certificates, as some security experts believe that such certificates reduce security due to the extra burden of managing private keys in multiple locations.

h3. What is the certificate chain for SSL or EV certificates?

See the [InCommon Certificate Types|InCommon Cert Types] for answers to this and similar questions.

h3. Do I need to install any certificates in my browser to access web sites that use SSL or EV certificates issued by the InCommon Certificate Service?

No, you do *not* need to install any certificates in the browser. The AddTrust root CA certificate, which is required for browser access, ships with all known browsers. In general, intermediate CA certificates are passed from the server to the browser as needed, so yes, there is a certificate bundle that needs to be installed on the server, but *not* in the browser.

If you are a site administrator testing a new server configuration, there is one caveat, however. Some browsers (such as Firefox) will store intermediate CA certificates received from a server in the browser's certificate store, so unless you're careful, you may be tricked into believing your server is configured correctly when in fact it's not. _Be sure to remove intermediate CA certificates from your browser's certificate store before testing your server configuration._

h3. What is the best way to test a server configured with an SSL or EV certificate issued by the InCommon Certificate Service?

Be wary of using a browser to test your server configuration. Some browsers (such as Firefox) will store intermediate CA certificates received from a server in the browser's certificate store, so unless you're careful, you may be tricked into believing your server is configured correctly when in fact it's not. To avoid this pitfall, use openssl to definitively test your server configuration:
{pre}$ openssl s_client -connect server:port -CApath /etc/ssl/certs/{pre}

If the client machine does not have the /etc/ssl/certs/ directory, try the following command instead:    

{pre}$ openssl s_client -connect server:port -CAfile comodoroot.crt{pre}

In either case, if certificate validation passes, you know your server is configured correctly. Note that /etc/ssl/certs/ and comodoroot.crt contain root certificates only; no intermediate CA certificates are included.

h3. What are the supported browsers, devices and application suites?

Web Browsers:

* Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01 +
* Mozilla Firefox 1.0+
* Opera 8.0+
* Apple Safari 1.2 +
* Google Chrome
* AOL 5+
* Netscape Communicator 4.77+
* Camino 1.0+
* Konqueror (KDE) Mozilla 0.6+

Extended Validation (EV) Browsers:

* Microsoft Internet Explorer 7+
* Opera 9.5+
* Firefox 3+
* Apple Safari 3.2+
* Google Chrome 1+

Email Clients (S/MIME):

* Microsoft Outlook 99+
* Microsoft Entourage (OS/X)
* Mozilla Thunderbird 1.0+
* Microsoft Outlook Express 5+
* Qualcomm Eudora 6.2+
* Lotus Notes (6+)
* (Mac OS X)
* Microsoft / Windows Mail 1.0+ (Vista)
* The Bat 1+

Micro Browsers / PDAs:

* Apple iPhone
* iPod Safari 1.0+
* Microsoft Windows Mobile 5 / 6+
** Windows Mobile 5 certificates will be issued from a Non-InCommon / Internet2 branded subordinate Root
* ACCESS NetFront Browser v3.4+
* RIM Blackberry v4.2.1+
* KDDI Openwave v6.2.0.12+
* Opera Mini v3+
* Opera Mobile 6+
* Sony Playstation Portable Sony Playstation 3
* Netscape Communicator 4.77+
* Nintendo Wii NTT / DoCoMo

Application Suites:

* Microsoft Authenticode Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)
* Adobe AIR Sun
* Java SE 1.4.2+
* Mozilla Suite 1.0+
* Sea Monkey

Document Security Platforms:

* Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Powerpoint, Access, InfoPath)

Server Platforms:

* All SSL-Capable Server Platforms

h2. Questions about Client Certificates

h3. Are client certificates included in the base price?

A subscriber to the InCommon Certificate Service may issue unlimited client certificates for *no additional fee*.

h3. What key usage types are supported?

Three key usage types of Standard Assurance Client Certificates are available to subscribers: signing-only, encryption-only, and dual-use client certificates.

h3. What is key escrow?

Use cases that involve the long-term encryption of data or documents raise the issue of key backup and recovery. Accordingly, key escrow, a service offered for *no additional fee* to subscribers of the InCommon Certificate Service, provides for backup storage of users' private keys.

h3. Do client certificates comply with Bronze and Silver?

Currently, we offer only _Standard Assurance_ Client Certificates. The InCommon PKI subcommittee will ensure that future client certificate types align with emerging InCommon Identity Assurance Profiles (Bronze/Silver).

h3. Are code-signing certificates supported?

Code-signing certificates are in the works, yes, and they are included in the base price as well.

h2. Miscellaneous Questions

h3. Where can I obtain a seal?

Please visit