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The InCommon Federation metadata is published at the following location:

http://wayf.incommonfederation.org/InCommon/InCommon-metadata.xml

This page introduces important policy and procedures associated with InCommon metadata. Other pages describe the availability of multiple metadata aggregates and provide guidance on how to configure specific metadata clients. General configuration issues, including the configuration of outbound firewalls, are discussed below.

Metadata Refresh Policy

InCommon expects participants to refresh metadata daily to ensure that SAML endpoints deployments have access to the most up-to-date keys and other registered information. Some software implementations (such as Shibboleth) handle metadata easily, but regardless of your software, please read this entire page to understand the requirements and pitfalls associated with metadata consumption.

Info

It is strongly recommended that InCommon SPs and IdPs refresh and verify metadata at least daily. Depending on your deployment, an An optimal configuration would attempt to refresh metadata every hour, especially if (assuming your client supports HTTP Conditional GET).

Participants are strongly encouraged to use SAML metadata client software that properly handles metadata; failure to do so can have profound effects on the successful use of the Federation. In addition to maintaining the security of your own deployment, proper metadata use is critical to ensure that other participants can depend on your system behaving correctly when they make changes.

...

In addition, if you don't refresh your metadata regularly, it is likely that a software implementation will fail at some point since the XML document carries an expiration date (validUntil) that causes the metadata to expire in approximately two weeks. InCommon strongly recommends that you do not rely on the actual length of this validity interval in any way, and in fact, we reserve the right to shorten the validity interval with little or no notice.

Signature Verification

Federation metadata is signed for integrity and authenticity. Participants are strongly encouraged to verify the XML signature on the metadata file before use; failure to do so will seriously compromise the security of your SAML deployment.

To bootstrap the trust fabric of the Federation, participants are required to download the following certificate, which contains the public key corresponding to the Federation's private metadata signing key:

https://wayf.incommonfederation.org/bridge/certs/incommon.pem

You may check the integrity of the downloaded certificate in a variety of ways. For example, you could use openssl after the fact as follows:

$ openssl x509 -sha1 -in incommon.pem -noout -fingerprint
SHA1 Fingerprint=74:27:8F:96:7C:F1:BF:CA:AA:1B:41:AF:B6:33:64:48:A2:15:0E:B4

Once the certificate file is locally installed, you can use it to verify the signature on the metadata file. For example, you could use the XmlSecTool (or some similar 3rd-party tool) to verify the signature:

...


xmlsectool.sh --verifySignature --signatureRequired \
    --certificate incommon.pem --inFile InCommon-metadata.xml

You may also want to schema validate the metadata:

...


xmlsectool.sh --validateSchema \
    --schemaDirectory schema-files --inFile InCommon-metadata.xml

For convenience, we provide a set of (suitably modified) schema files that permit offline schema validation.

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Metadata Refresh Process

Here are the steps to deploy a secure, automated metadata refresh process:

  1. Choose one of three Metadata Aggregates
  2. Obtain an authentic copy of the Metadata Signing Certificate
  3. Install and configure recommended Metadata Client Software:
    1. Refresh metadata at least daily (but more often if possible)
    2. Validate the expiration date on downloaded metadata
    3. Verify the XML signature on downloaded metadata
  4. Adjust your outbound firewall rules (if necessary)

Refresh Interval

Deployments are strongly encouraged to refresh metadata at least daily. If your metadata client supports HTTP Conditional GET, configure the client to refresh metadata every hour. This strategy provides the best protection in the event of a key compromise.

Validity Check

Federation metadata has an expiration date, much like an X.509 certificate. It is important that expired metadata not be accepted, otherwise an attacker would be able to substitute expired metadata in conjunction with a metadata refresh. In particular, a metadata file should not be accepted if either any of the following conditions are true:

  1. If the metadata file does not have a validUntil XML attribute on the root element.
  2. If the validUntil attribute date on the root element is expired.
  3. If the validUntil date on the root element is too far into the future.

A metadata reload refresh process should check each of the above conditions before accepting the metadata; alternatively . Alternatively, if your SAML implementation is known to ignore/reject expired metadata (a basic correctness requirement), it may be sufficient to ensure that a validUntil attribute exists and its date value is not unexpectedly far into the future.

Warning
titleVerify Validate the expiration date independentlyon InCommon metadata!

Verifying the signature on a SAML metadata file does not verify validate the presence or value of an expiration date. The only way to verify validate the expiration date is to parse the XML.

Configuration

Firewall and software configuration issues are discussed in the following subsections.

Firewall Configuration

Depending on your environment, you may have to poke a hole in an outbound firewall to get metadata refesh to work. In that case, you will actually want to poke two holes in that firewall since there are two metadata servers as described below.

Hostname wayf.incommonfederation.org resolves to one of two identical servers, either in Michigan (207.75.165.125) or Indiana (140.182.44.53). The actual server used at any given point in time is unspecified and left to the discretion of InCommon Operations. If one of the servers goes down or requires maintenance, the other can be brought up within minutes, with minimal disruption of services.

Therefore, please make sure both your SAML implementation and your metadata refresh processes are configured with hostname wayf.incommonfederation.org (as opposed to an IP address). On the other hand, make sure your outbound firewall (if any) is configured with both IP addresses (207.75.165.125 and 140.182.44.53).

Software Configuration

If you plan on using the Shibboleth software for the purposes of federation, you can in fact also use Shibboleth to download and verify the signed metadata without having to rely on any other tools. Regardless of your software implementation, however, you can always set up a cron job to refresh your metadata, but in that case you will need additional tools to verify the XML signature at the time of refresh and check the validUntil attribute as noted above. Participants are encouraged to share such tools and scripts for the benefit of the community.

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Signature Verification

Federation metadata is signed for integrity and authenticity. Participants are strongly encouraged to verify the XML signature on the metadata file before use; failure to do so will seriously compromise the security of your SAML deployment.

Warning
titleVerify the XML signature on InCommon metadata!

A trusted metadata process MUST verify the XML signature on InCommon metadata. It is not sufficient to request the metadata via a TLS-protected HTTP connection, which is why the sample process shown below does not rely on TLS.

The InCommon Federation is based on the Explicit Key Trust Model, one of several possible metadata trust models. To bootstrap the trust fabric of the Federation, participants download and configure an authentic copy of the Metadata Signing Certificate into their metadata refresh process. The certificate must be obtained securely since all subsequent operations depend on it.

Once the certificate file is locally installed, you can use it to verify the signature on the metadata file. For example, you could use the XmlSecTool (or some similar 3rd-party tool) to verify the signature:

Code Block
languagebash
$ MD_LOCATION=http://md.incommon.org/InCommon/InCommon-metadata.xml
$ MD_PATH=/tmp/InCommon-metadata.xml
$ /usr/bin/curl --silent $MD_LOCATION > $MD_PATH
$ ./xmlsectool.sh --verifySignature --signatureRequired \
    --certificate $MD_CERT_PATH --inFile $MD_PATH
INFO  XmlSecTool - Reading XML document from file '/tmp/InCommon-metadata.xml'
INFO  XmlSecTool - XML document parsed and is well-formed.
INFO  XmlSecTool - XML document signature verified.

You may also want to schema validate the metadata:

Code Block
languagebash
$ ./xmlsectool.sh --validateSchema \
    --schemaDirectory $SCHEMA_DIR --inFile $MD_PATH
INFO  XmlSecTool - Reading XML document from file '/tmp/InCommon-metadata.xml'
INFO  XmlSecTool - XML document parsed and is well-formed.
INFO  XmlSecTool - XML document is schema valid

For convenience, we provide a set of (suitably modified) schema files that permit offline schema validation.

Anchor
firewall-config
firewall-config

Firewall Configuration

Depending on your environment, you may have to poke a hole in an outbound firewall to allow your metadata client to reach the metadata server. In that case, you will actually want to poke two holes in that firewall since there are two physical servers as described on the Metadata Server wiki page.

For More Information