Access   ControlThe act of   allowing access to facilities, programs, resources or services to authorized   persons (or other valid subjects), and denying unauthorized access. Access   Control requires that rules or policies be in place, that privileges be   defined, so that they can be enforced.
Access   ManagementThat   part of Identity Management comprising the processes and tools used to   associate privileges with subjects in accord with the wishes of Authorities.  A   comprehensive set of tools and processes for assign and revoke access to   resource to digital identities.
Access RightsThe full set of   resource permissions or entitlements that a Subject or group possesses.
ActionFunction,   Action, and Verb are close synonyms within the privilege and access control   domain. They are used interchangeably in the tuple data model where a   privilege is defined by Subject + Function + Scope.  

See "Function" for examples.
AssertionA   declaration or claim. Typically, when the term assertion is used in conjection with privilege management it tends   to connote a claim formatted with a particular formal syntax. For example the   document or speaker may be talking about a claim formatted as an assertion   conformant to the SAML specification.
AssuranceThe   degree of confidence in the vetting process used to establish the identity of   the
    Subject to whom the Credential was issued, and the degree of confidence   that the individual
    who uses the Credential is the Subject to whom the Credential was issued.   The US government
    uses the four assurance levels defined in OMB0404
    to express the degree of confidence:
    ● Level 1: Little or no confidence in the asserted identity's   validity
    ● Level 2: Some confidence in the asserted identity's validity
    ● Level 3: High confidence in the asserted identity's validity
    ● Level 4: Very high confidence in the asserted identity's validity
    InCommon currently defines two assurance levels:
    ● Bronze: Little or no confidence in the asserted identity's validity   (comparable to US
    government Level 1 assurance)
    ● Silver: Some confidence in the asserted identity's validity (comparable   to US government
    Level 2 assurance)
AttributeA distinct   characteristic of a subject. An object's attributes are said to describe it. Attributes are often represented as   pairs of "attribute name" and "attribute value(s)", e.g.   "foo" has the value 'bar', "count" has the value 1,   "gizmo" has the values "frob" and "2", etc.   Often, these are referred to as "attribute value pairs".
The term also refers to properties of objects or elements of   assertions whether or not they represent subjects. 
Attribute Release A Service Provider often   requires identity attributes for the Subject for
    access control, personalization, and other purposes. These attributes are   included in the
    assertion issued by the Identity Provider at the time the Subject attempts   to access the service.
Attribute Release Policy Rules that an Identity Provider   follows when deciding whether or not
    to release an attribute and its value(s). Attribute release policies can be   customized for a given
    Service Provider or Service Provider category.
AuthenticationThe security measure by which a   Subject transmits a Credential and validates
    his or her association with a Digital Identity. An example of   authentication is submitting a
    username and password that is verified as correct or incorrect.  Alternative definition: The process of   confirming the identity of a principal. Since computer identification cannot   be absolute (e.g., passwords can be stolen), authentication relies on a   related concept of level of trust, in which an institution relies on good identity management   practice (so that the institution believes they have correctly identified an   individual) and secure mechanisms for sharing identity. 
   This is sometimes referred to as AuthN (authentication), in contrast to AuthZ (authorization).
Authority1)   A broad term than can cover most aspects of creating policies and rules   governing who has rights and privileges for an organization. It   includes  the process or workflow  used to attest or assign    rights and privileges , the ability to control the dissemination of those   rights,  as well as an organization's responsibilities to enforce those   rights. This is sometimes referred to as AuthZ (authorization), in contrast   to AuthN (authentication.

2) It can also refer to a person or policy or rule that confers   privileges to subjects, either directly by use of an access management   system, or indirectly.

3) It can also be used more specifically in a singular   authorization situation to say whether a principal has "authority"   to take an action. In this sense, authority and privilege can be used interchangeably.

The process for determining a   specific Subject's eligibility to gain access to a  resource or service, a right or permission granted to access a system or information.  The   process of deciding if a subject (person, program, device, group, role,etc.)   is allowed to have access to or take an action against a resource.   Authorization relies on a trusted identity (authentication) and the ability to test the privileges held by the subject   against the policies or rules governing that resource to determine if an   action is permitted for a subject. 

 AKA AuthZ

ClaimA   declaration, or assertion, made by an entity. Hopefully the entity is a   reliable third party. Examples of claims include names, affiliations, group   membership, or capabilities.
Chain of Authority The chain of   command within an organization that confers the power to
    order subordinates to perform a task within their job description. The   chain of authority within a
    business establishes who is in charge of giving who orders, and it contributes   to the efficient
    attainment of the company's objectives when properly used.
Change Management The controlled   identification and implementation of required changes
    within a system.
Cloud Resources "Cloud"   often refers to "Cloud Computing" but the simplest definition   of
    "Cloud" is that it is the Internet, the infrastructure that   allows vendors to supply computing,
    platform, software and services to their customers on a payasyou
    go utility model. Cloud
    computing uses the Internet to share resources, software and information   ondemand,
    much like
    a public utility allows many people to share the same water or power   system, paying only for
    what they need.
CredentialA unique   identifier and associated authentication material used by the Subject   in
    the authentication process.
Credential Lifecycle   Management The Credential   lifecycle consists of an initialization phase,
    where the credential is issued to the Subject, an operational phase, where   the Subject uses the
    Credential to access resources, and the termination phase, where the   Credential expires and
    may be renewed or revoked.
Credential Syncing The propagation of the same credential to multiple   repositories.
DelegationThe process   used, or task performed, by a grantor to assign privileges to other   subjects within the limits of its authority. A subject with delegated   privileges does not have to perform any type of impersonation in order to   exercise the privileges.
eduPersonAn LDAP object   class authored and promoted by the EDUCAUSE/Internet2
    eduPerson Task Force to facilitate the development of   interinstitutional
    applications. The
    eduPerson object class focuses on the attributes of individuals. InCommon   Identity Providers
    are expected to populate a number of the eduPerson attributes. Current   documentation on the
    eduPerson object class is available at .   InCommon IdP
    attribute population requirements are provided at Federation references#Gettingtheattributesright.
EffectiveIndirect,   inherited.  Opposite of immediate.  An assignment is   "effective" if it exists because of other assignments or   rules.  Some examples:
  - A privilege may be granted due to   another granted privilege (e.g. if you are granted READ access to the   Arts and Sciences school in the payroll system [immediate], then you also   have READ access to the English department in that system [effective]   ). 
  - A privilege may be granted via an assignment   to a role, and the role or other role in a hierarchy is assigned the   privilege. 
  - A group membership might exist due to a group being a   member of another group. 
An effective assignment generally cannot be directly unassigned.
EligibilityA   concept closely related to authorization in that it can use the same   mechanisms of authentication, policies, rules, and role evaluation. The   differences are semantic - one is "eligible for something" as   opposed to "authorized to do something" - so each is appropriate to   use to describe different use cases. For instance, "all students are   eligible for an email account", vs "students in this class are   authorized to download course materials".
Eligibility is more akin to a "right", in legal terms,   than a "privilege", but the technical differences in how they are   accomplished in an online environment are generally negligible.
The term has sometimes been used in circumstances in which   subjects must take a specific step in order to receive an authorization.
EntitlementOften   used the same as Privilege, entitlement carries the feeling of something owed   or of a right granted. We make limited use of the word here. An   authority-related eduPerson attribute - eduPersonEntitlement - uses this term   specifically as an attribute that conveys ownership of the named right or   privilege, a token that can be used directly or in a rules evaluation in   determining authorization.
It's noteworthy that privileges with qualifications, limits,   scope, attributes, conditions, or prerequisites aren't called entitlements.   It seems to be used only for simple, non-parameterized expressions.
EntityA   collection of identifiers and attributes managed by an Identity Management   System representing any real-world actor, such as a person, process, system,   etc.
This is very similar to one definition of Subject below, with   the possible distinction that a Subject can represent groups and roles in   addition to real-world actors.
External CollaborationWorking with personnel at one or   more other institutions on a given
    project or program. The collaboration creates a need for shared access to   resources that may
    be hard to achieve due to the lack of a common Identity Provider.
FederationA federation is an association   of organizations that come together to exchange
    information as appropriate about their users and resources in order to   enable collaborations and
    transactions. A federation provides a common framework for trusted shared   management of
    access to online resources. Through the federation, Identity Providers can give their   users
    single signon convenience and privacy protection, while online Service Providers   control
    access to their protected resources.
FunctionFunction,   Action, and Verb are close synonyms within the privilege and access control   domain. They are used interchangeably in the tuple data model where a   privilege is defined by Subject + Function + Scope.  

Subject   +  Function  +  Scope
Joe  +  Can Access  +  Oxford English   Dictionary Online
Jane  +  Can Download  +  MS Office 2007
Jim  +  Can Create Functions   +  In   category HR
Juan  +  Can Spend or Commit  +  On Cost   Object Q678543
Attila  +  Can Approve   +  On Cost   Object Q678543
James + is a Principal Investigator + in School of Science
GrantorA   principal authorized to delegate some portion of its own authority and that   has exercised that privilege.
Group An identity data element that represents a collection of objects. The chief   characteristic
    of a group is its membership, i.e. the set of objects that belong to the   group.
Group Management Group management   consists of the processes in place to maintain group
    membership information. Group membership can be maintained dynamically,   based on
    information from systems of record, or manually.
GuidelineRecommended practice that allows   some discretion or leeway in its interpretation,
    implementation, or use.
IdentifierAn Identity Data element or   attribute that uniquely identifies or resolves to an
    individual Subject.
    In an enterprise setting, there are likely to be needs for several types of   identifiers.
    Examples of identifiers include email address, login ID, person registry   ID, administrative
    system ID (employee ID, student ID), driver’s license number, passport   number, Social
    Security Number, card ID, library ID.
    Identifier characteristics of particular interest:
    Persistent identifier: An identifier that is permanently assigned to a   Subject. By its
    nature, a persistent identifier is nonreassignable.
    Reassignable identifier: An identifier value that can be assigned to a   different
    Subject. At a given point in time, only one Subject will possess the   identifier. Over time,
    multiple Subjects may utilize/possess the identifier.
Identity or Digital   Identity The electronic representation of   a Subject, which participates in
    electronic transactions on behalf of the Subject.
Identity Data The set of information that   pertains to a Subject. This information is used to
    uniquely identify the Subject and communicate with the Subject. It may also   include group
    memberships, roles and eligibility. Also referred to as Identity Attributes   .
Identity ManagementIdentity   management is often used broadly to encompass not only activities to   correctly identify and maintain attributes about subjects, but also the   manifestations of that knowledge through infrastructure supplying access and   security services - single sign-on, account/service provisioning,   authentication and authorization. Here we focus on a narrower definition,   principally the need to identify persons as one individual despite multiple   associations and roles, proper identification of other entities and agents   (organizations, applications, groups, services, resources, etc), and the   management of that information over time and across the enterprise.
Sometimes the term "Identity and Access Management" is   used to be explicitly inclusive of access management within this practice.
When the number of subjects that need to be given identifiers   for use in Identity and Access Management systems is very large, the ability   to name things may itself be controlled by access management. This requires   an underlying identity management practice for namespaces.
Identity Management   Architecture A coherent set of standards,   policies, certifications and
    management aimed at providing a context for implementing a digital identity   infrastructure that
    meets the current goals and objectives of the business and is capable of   evolving to meet future
    goals and objectives.
Identity Management   Roadmap A plan that matches shortterm   and longterm goals with specific identity management technology solutions to   help meet those goals. It is a plan that applies to a new product or process,   or to an emerging technology. Developing a roadmap has three major uses.It   helps reach a consensus about a set of identity management needs and the   technologies required to satisfy those needs; it provides a mechanism to help   forecast identity management developments and it provides a framework to help   plan and coordinate identity
    management developments.
Identity Management System   (IdMS) A system that fulfills   enterprise identity and access
    management needs. It maintains a database of Subjects with information   gathered from
    Systems of Record and a store to house Subject Credentials and is   responsible for properly
    merging identity data, determining group memberships, provisioning   resources, and managing
    Subject Digital Identities and Credentials.
Identity Matching The process of comparing   information from different Systems of Record and
    deciding when records from different sources apply to the same or different   individuals. A
    common strategy is to compile a list of attributes and use them as a basis for   comparison. In
    general, the effectiveness of identity matching is controlled by the   consistency, quality and
    amount of data used in the comparison.
Identity Provider (IdP) The originating location for a   user. An IdP is a campus or other
    organization that manages and operates an identity management system and   offers information
    about members of its community to other federation participants.
ImmediateDirect.    Opposite of effective.  An assignment is "immediate" if there   is an explicit assignment from the subject to the resource (and perhaps   including qualifiers).  An immediate assignment does not depend on other   assignments to exist.  An immediate assignment can be unassigned   directly. 
InCommon The InCommon   Federation is the U.S. education and research identity federation.
Integration Technologies Technology used   to bring together or incorporate identity data from
    multiple sources into a merged record.
IT strategyThe discipline   that defines how IT will be used to help businesses win in their
    chosen business context.
NamespaceA   domain in which an identifier is unique in representing a single object.
PermissionA   closely related term to access control, a permission is the control specifically related to a   resource and an action - a subject must have permission to take that   action. Note - paccman is deprecating this term and suggest that privilege be   used consistently.
PolicyThe set of basic   principles and associated guidelines, formulated and enforced by the
    governing body of an organization, to direct and limit its actions in   pursuit of longterm
Policy (2)A policy is   used to describe general access control requirements. There are many existing   proprietary and application-specific languages for creating policies, but   XACML has several points in its favor: it's standard, it's generic, it's   distributed, it's powerful.
A XACML policy has at least one, and possibly more rules. A   policy may be written to have a single effect, meaning that each policy has a   single rule that either permits or denies access. This style of policy   writing results in many individual policies, but each policy is atomic and   uncomplicated. An alternative is to have fewer policies, each with multiple   rules within.
A XACML policy contains one or more RULEs, which may contain a   TARGET and a CONDITION. A TARGET consists of a SUBJECT, an ACTION, a   RESOURCE, and optionally an ENVIRONMENT. RULEs can be composited.
PrincipalA   subject whose identity can be authenticated.
PrivilegesEtymologically   speaking, a privilege is a "personal law", making privileges a set   of personal rights. Privileges amount to the sum of what a subject may do, as   granted to them or inherited. 
In the context of a Privilege management system, Privilege is   used to describe the combination of a subject or group, their current   allowable actions, and any qualifications or scoping limitations that shall   be imposed on those allowable actions.
ProgramA group of related projects,   subprograms, and program activities that are managed in
    a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them   individually.

The   process of managing attributes and accounts within the scope of a defined   business process or interaction. Provisioning an account or service may   involve the creation, modification, deletion, suspension, or restoration of a   defined set of accounts or attributes in order to affect the subjects access rights. 

The mapping of digital identities to accounts, credentials and access rights.

QualifierIn   the context privilege manage and access control, Qualifier and Scope are   close synonyms, often used interchangeably. A qualifier, or scope, mediates   (or restricts) the applicability of a Verb or Function.

For example, within a financial system, we may have a verb or   function called "can spend" and the scope will specify the cost   objects or account numbers to which this verb can legitimately be applied.

In another example, library systems may have a verb or function   named "can access" and the scope or qualifier may specify a   particular database or resource such as "Oxford English Dictionary   Online".

A slightly self-referential example, occurs when a privilege   management system has a verb or function called "can create   Functions" and the scope or qualifier might be "in the category of   HR".
Research and Scholarship   Entity Category The Research & Scholarship   (R&S) Category is
    a designation that can be awarded to a Service Provider in the InCommon   Federation. The
    designation indicates the service provider supports research and scholarly   activities. Virtual
    organizations and campusbased
    collaboration services are examples of service providers that
    could be categorized as Research and Scholarship.
ResourceResource and   Target are often used synonymously when discussing privilege management   colloquially. As with Target, the term is context dependent when used   informally. At times,  Resource is another close synonym of Qualifier   and Scope. However, people tend to use this term when speaking about more   "tangible" scopes such as "Oxford English Dictionary   Online" or "Ethnic Newswatch". There are other qualifiers and   scopes that people don't typically think of as a resource, for example   "the category of HR", "NULL", and depending how closely   you work with the financial system, cost objects and account numbers.

See Qualifier
ResponsibilityA   responsibility is an action that a principal assigned to a role is expected   to perform.  Similar to a privilege except that the principal not only   has the ability to perform the action, but is expected to perform the action.   In the Kuali Enterprise Workflow system, an example of a responsibility is a   step in a workflow where a subject needs to respond to a workflow   action.  Note that more than one person could have the same   responsibility.
Risk Level A Risk is the   amount of harm that can be expected to occur during a given time
    period due to a specific harm event (e.g., an accident). Statistically, the   level of risk can be
    calculated as the product of the probability that harm occurs (e.g., that   an accident happens)
    multiplied by the severity of that harm (i.e., the average amount of harm   or more conservatively
    the maximum credible amount of harm). In practice, the amount of risk is   usually categorized
    into a small number of levels because neither the probability nor harm   severity can typically be
    estimated with accuracy and precision.
Role (Security Role)Colloquially we   use "roles" very broadly.  In higher-ed some of the common   roles are Dean, Department Chair, Principal Investigator, Faculty, Post-Doc,   ...

In the context of privilege management and access control, a   Role centric model presumes that given the precise position or title of a   person within an organization, the privilege management system can draw   conclusions about what privileges should be granted to the person.  An identity data element that represents a collection of   permissions or entitlements.

Roles may also be thought of as meta-privileges which are used a   short hand for granting a wide range of finer grained privileges to someone   that "has the role." It is also noted that a Role may imply one or   more Roles. For example a Department Chair will also be presumed to be a   Faculty member.

Modeling roles can be problematic. In some systems it may be   appropriate to define a role of "Dean" while in other systems it   may be important to create "Dean of Biology" , "Dean of School   of Science", .... It is important to understand how the modeling will   impact the finer grained privileges that will be conveyed to the individuals   associated with specific roles, for a particular implementation.

Role Based Access Controll   (RBAC)

In computer systems security,   role based access control is an approach to restricting system access to authorized users. RBAC is   sometimes referred to as role based  security. Within an organization, roles are created for various job   functions. 
   The permissions to perform certain operations are assigned to specific roles.   Members or staff (or
    other system users) are assigned particular roles, and through those role   assignments acquire
    the computer permissions to perform particular computersystem
    functions. Since users are not
    assigned permissions directly, but only acquire them through their role (or   roles), management
    of individual user rights becomes a matter of simply assigning appropriate   roles to the user's
    account; this simplifies common operations, such as adding a user, or   changing a user's

RuleA prescribed   evaluation of data which is used to confer a privilege, to a subject or a   collection of subjects.
Service Provider (SP)A campus or   other organization that makes online resources available
    to users based in part on information about them that it receives from an   Identity Provider.
Single Sign On The use of a   centralized authentication service which enables a Subject to
    access multiple browserbased
    electronic resources with a single Credential and requiring only
    one authentication event.
ScopeSee   Qualifier
Stewardshipthe responsible   overseeing and protection of something considered worth caring
    for and preserving.
Subject A realworld entity. The term is usually taken to mean an individual human being.
    However, a broader definition also includes organizations, companies and   even individual
    electronic devices.  Any   entity whose identifiers and attributes are managed by an Identity and Access   Management practice.
System of Record A system that is   authoritative for one or more Subject identity data
    elements.  SOR
TargetThe   term "Target" should be deprecated.  Target is a matter of   perspective and context. When people are discussing privilege and access   control informally, a target is often the same as a Resource. However, at   other times, the focus is on the Subject. In yet different contexts the   target is actually the set of people that have a specific verb and scope   applied to them, as in the "target group".
VerbSee   Function
WorkflowWorkflow   is concerned with the automation of procedures where documents, information   or tasks are passed
between participants according to a defined set of rules to   achieve, or contribute to the authority assigning privileges.